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Metgasco finds gas at Vali-1 ST1 exploration well in Australia

first_imgThe Vali-1 ST1 gas exploration well was drilled to a total depth of 3,217metres measured depth in basement The Vali-1 ST1 exploration well is located in Cooper-Eromanga Basin licence ATP 2021 in Australia. (Credit: Pixabay) Metgasco and its partners have identified gas at the Vali-1 ST1 gas exploration well which is located in Cooper-Eromanga Basin licence ATP 2021 in Australia following the drilling programme.Located on the Queensland side of the Cooper- Eromanga Basin, the 370km² ATP 2021 permit is highly prospective with drill-ready prospects identified by 3D seismic.The Vali-1 ST1 gas exploration well, which was drilled to a total depth (TD) of 3,217m measured depth in the basement, was being conditioned for further wireline logging, Metgasco said.The well’s primary target is in sandstones of the Patchawarra Formation, with the secondary objective being the Toolachee Formation.Metgasco said: “Initial log analysis indicates that gas has been intersected in multiple sands in the primary Patchawarra Formation target. To date, this gas saturation has been calculated in the upper section of the Patchawarra, above the VC50 coal.”At the end of conditioning operations, the partners are planning to acquire log data across the section below the VC50, as the section exhibited strong shows.Australia-based Vintage Energy is the operator of the ATP 2021 joint venture with 50% stake while Metgasco and Bridgeport (Cooper Basin) own 25% stakes each.Metgasco is free carried for the drilling of Vali-1 ST1 wellIn line with farm-out agreements with Vintage Energy and Bridgeport Energy, Metgasco is free carried for the drilling of Vali-1 ST1 well.Metgasco chief executive officer Ken Aitken said: “Metgasco believes that the Vali-1 ST1 results provided by wireline logs to date are very encouraging and we still have the lower Patchawarra to evaluate.“We look forward to finishing the well reservoir evaluation and to updating shareholders shortly.”In December 2019, Vintage Energy and its joint venture (JV) partner Otway Energy have spudded the Nangwarry-1 well in the onshore Otway Basin in Australia.With the planned total depth (TD) of the well being 4,350m, the drilling and logging operations were expected to be completed in nearly 45 days.last_img read more

Tax bombshell: Wales confirms ‘no stamp duty’ extension and hits landlords hard

first_imgThe Welsh government has confirmed that its residential sales stamp duty holiday is to end on March 31st and also revealed a tax raid on landlords effective tomorrow.Its announcement is likely to weaken the argument for Rishi Sunak to extend England’s stamp duty holiday, but the Welsh government’s raid on landlords has proved more controversial.In Wales LTT is charged at a higher rate for properties that are not purchased as a main home – e.g. second homes and buy-to-let properties.This is different to England where second homes stamp duty is bolted on at a uniform 3%.In Wales it’s 3% up to £180,000, 6.5% on the portion up to £250,000, 8% on the slab up to £400,000, 10.5% up to £750,000, 13% up to £1.5 million and 15% on anything over that.But after tomorrow all these rates are to each rise by 1%. This means a landlord buying a £300,000 property in Wales will pay an extra £3,500 in LTT or £16,900.“This is simply unacceptable to increase the rate of additional property LTT in this fashion,” says John Stewart (pictured), Deputy Policy Director for the National Residential Landlords Association said.“This will destabilise the private rental market in Wales, increasing costs on buying homes with immediate effect.“The start of a national lockdown is not the time to put additional burdens on a sector already facing some of the longest and most severe Coronavirus restrictions and will deter investment in rental properties that we so badly need.”Read the full text of the Welsh LTT announcement.NRLA John Stewart Land Transaction Tax LTT stamp duty December 22, 2020Nigel LewisOne commentKelvin Francis, Kelvin Francis Ltd. Kelvin Francis Ltd. 22nd December 2020 at 10:29 amWhat the Wales Parliament seem to think, is that second homes are holiday homes for wealthy people. They appear to have overlooked the reality that the vast majority are bought by ‘Buy to Let’ Landlords and this is a definite discouragement to them. A future shortage of properties to rent will affect tenants, making the supply short and the rents of those available, higher. They should have discussed this with representative professional bodies before taking such a draconian action.Log in to ReplyWhat’s your opinion? Cancel replyYou must be logged in to post a comment.Please note: This is a site for professional discussion. Comments will carry your full name and company.This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.Related articles BREAKING: Evictions paperwork must now include ‘breathing space’ scheme details30th April 2021 City dwellers most satisfied with where they live30th April 2021 Hong Kong remains most expensive city to rent with London in 4th place30th April 2021 Home » News » Housing Market » Tax bombshell: Wales confirms ‘no stamp duty’ extension and hits landlords hard previous nextHousing MarketTax bombshell: Wales confirms ‘no stamp duty’ extension and hits landlords hardDouble blow for sales market in Wales announced yesterday prompts furious response from NRLA.Nigel Lewis22nd December 20201 Comment3,277 Viewslast_img read more

USA: Commanding Officer of Pre-Commissioning Unit Mississippi Visits Submarine’s Namesake State

first_img Share this article View post tag: usa Back to overview,Home naval-today USA: Commanding Officer of Pre-Commissioning Unit Mississippi Visits Submarine’s Namesake State View post tag: Navy View post tag: News by topic Training & Education February 21, 2012 View post tag: Namesake View post tag: Commanding View post tag: Naval View post tag: State View post tag: Unit View post tag: Pre-Commissioning The commanding officer of Pre-Commissioning Unit Mississippi (SSN 782) is visiting the submarine’s namesake state Feb. 19-21 in preparation for the upcoming commissioning this summer.“It’s great to have another opportunity to visit the state of Mississippi and the Ole Miss NROTC unit. We continue to enjoy tremendous support from all around the state and particularly from our commissioning committee,” said Capt. John McGrath.During his visit, McGrath will meet with University of Mississippi and University of Memphis NROTC midshipman and their faculty; members of the Mississippi Commissioning Committee; Eastern Mississippi Business Council and the mayor of Pascagoula.McGrath is conducting the namesake visit to draw awareness to the upcoming commissioning of the newest Virginia-class attack submarine, which will be commissioned in Pascagoula, June 2.McGrath, a native of Neptune, N.J., leads a crew of about 140 officers and enlisted personnel. He graduated with distinction from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1990, earning a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering.Virginia-class submarines are built under a unique teaming arrangement between General Dynamics Electric Boat and Huntington Ingalls Industries – Newport News. Construction on the submarine began in February 2007 and will be delivered this spring.Mississippi, like all Virginia-class submarines is designed to dominate both the littorals and deep oceans. It will serve as a valuable asset in supporting the core capabilities of maritime strategy, including sea control, power projection, forward presence, maritime security and deterrence.[mappress]Naval Today Staff , February 21, 2012; Image: navy View post tag: Submarines USA: Commanding Officer of Pre-Commissioning Unit Mississippi Visits Submarine’s Namesake State View post tag: Officer View post tag: Mississippi View post tag: visitslast_img read more

FSA considers study funding for reduction of salt in bread

first_imgThe Food Standards Agency (FSA) is deciding whether to fund scientic reasearch into the technicalities of reducing salt in bread.The FSA has already met with stakeholders, including the Fede-ration of Bakers, the UK Association of Manufacturers of Bakers’ Yeast and the Association of Bakery Ingredient Manufacturers, over the last couple of months, to discuss the technical problems associated with reducing salt in plant bread, particularly those made with higher-protein flours. It said in a statement: “The Agency is assessing whether it could support specific research which would help overcome these barriers.”Experiments would be likely to take place before salt guidelines are reviewed by the FSA in 2008, a spokeswoman said.The FSA added that data from the UK’s National Diet and Nutrition Survey showed that bread was one of the largest contributors to salt intakes in the UK at around 17% of intakes, probably due to the high quantity and regularity of consumption. But salt reductions of around one-third had already been achieved in some breads since the 1980s, it said.last_img read more

In Short

first_imgHealth white paperThe government’s public health white paper, published this week, avoided detailed strategies on food pending the outcome of Responsibility Deal consultations currently taking place. Agreements on “further reformulation of food to reduce salt” are expected in the New Year, while it noted that “food containing fruit or vegetables with other types of food” should be added to the 5-a-day licensing scheme.First Café On outletFrench-trained chef Loretta Liu has announced plans to open her first Café On outlet in London in early 2011, following the launch of her patisserie brand this autumn. Café On currently sells its products, including macarons, croquembouche, eclairs and sables, at food markets across the city, as well as direct to high-end specialist retailers.Maison Blanc service is commendedPatisserie chain Maison Blanc has been named among the top five brands that deliver the best customer service in the UK. The survey by the National Skills Academy Hospitality looked at factors such as warmth, welcome, personality, staff product knowledge, training, perceived value for money and customers’ likeliness to recommend.VAT plea refusedInnocent has been on the losing end of a court case over the VAT charged on its smoothies. The firm, part-owned by Coca Cola, challenged its tax bill, arguing its smoothies were a “liquefied fruit salad”, rather than a “beverage”. The company claimed it was unfair that the government charges 17.5% VAT on Innocent’s 100% fruit juice smoothies, when a bowl of the raw ingredients are not subject to VAT.last_img read more

Press release: More than 100 rural schools to get gigabit speed broadband

first_img This project is a great example of the Government’s new “outside in” approach to rolling out full fibre broadband, which is taking gigabit broadband to the hardest to reach rural areas first. As well as making a dramatic difference for students in the classroom, by using the schools as broadband hubs we are also making ultrafast broadband available to thousands of rural homes and businesses across the country more quickly. Kim Mears, managing director for Strategic Infrastructure Development at Openreach said: We’re really pleased to be able to support the Government’s drive to connect up schools with full fibre broadband through our Full Fibre Infrastructure Build programme, which enables schools not in our commercial roll out plans to still connect to our full fibre network – without incurring any build costs. Without fast reliable connectivity there is the risk that children will miss out on what is now an essential learning tool, so being able to connect up schools in this way is great news. In our inter-connected world, a fast, reliable internet connection has never been more important. The schools will be connected to the world of technology, enabling teachers to realise the benefits that fast and reliable broadband has to offer, from reducing teacher workload to improving access to high-quality resources. I don’t want schools in villages and rural areas to be left in the slow lane when it comes to broadband, and the funding announced today will benefit the schools that are most in need. More than 100 rural primary schools across England are set to get gigabit-capable broadband connections within the next few months as part of the Government’s commitment to improve internet infrastructure in rural areas.Under the £3 million pilot programme, 3 schools have already been connected, and 52 have signed contracts with work expected to be completed in the coming weeks. There are also ongoing discussions with another 72 schools who are interested in participating. The trial was originally planned to reach 100 schools, but the project has been delivered under-budget, allowing even more schools to benefit.Minister for Digital, Margot James said: Those schools already connected under the programme have seen their broadband speeds jump from 0.5 Megabits per Second (Mbps) to 100Mbps, and have the capability to be upgraded to 1,000Mbps (1Gbps) in the future should they wish to do so.These new speeds are enabling whole classes to simultaneously surf the internet on tablets as part of structured lessons, and gives schools easier access to online training and educational learning. Access to cloud services not only means savings as staff go paperless, but it has also enabled the decommissioning of the school’s local servers to reduce hardware, maintenance and IT support costs.Mary See, Headteacher at Cheselbourne Village School, Dorset said: Having new super-fast broadband reach our school has revolutionised the way we work. The much faster and reliable access to the web has allowed staff to work more efficiently; while the children, although still geographically remote, are no longer technologically isolated and will have the same opportunities as their urban peers in preparing for a more technological future. The trial is part of the Government’s £190 million Local Full Fibre Networks (LFFN) programme, and will see the schools benefit from fully-funded and future-proof full fibre connections directly into their classrooms. In addition the new connection being provided to schools has had the added benefit of increasing connectivity for the surrounding homes and businesses. Once the fibre has been laid (with the school acting as a “hub”) connecting other premises in the area becomes much more commercially viable to broadband providers.The trial will be instrumental in shaping the new £200 million Rural Gigabit Connectivity Programme, targeting the hardest to reach areas in the UK. Building on the same principle, the programme will deliver gigabit capable connections to key public and business buildings, including schools, as well as encouraging broadband providers to create additional connections to local homes.Notes to Editors Education Secretary Damian Hinds said: In the recent Future Telecoms Infrastructure Review (FTIR), the Government made it a priority to connect hard-to-reach rural areas, with the overall aim to connect 15 million premises to full fibre broadband by 2025, and the whole of the UK by 2033. In addition to the existing Local Full Fibre Networks Programme a further £200m of funding was announced in the 2018 Autumn Budget to pilot the “Outside In” approach described in the FTIR – connecting harder to reach areas of the UK. That funding is available from April 2019 and the Programme will be called the Rural Gigabit Connectivity programme (RGC) List of schools connected already or due to be connected shortlyDorsetCheselbourne PrimaryDerbyshirePeak Forest PrimaryDevonCheriton Fitzpaine Primary School, Highampton Community Primary School, Princetown Community Primary School, Holbeton School, Farway Church of England Primary, Filleigh Community Primary School, St Joseph’s Catholic Primary SchoolGloucestershireHartpury Church of England Primary, Slimbridge Primary School, Northleach Church of England Primary School, Churchdown Parton Manor Infant School, Churchdown Parton Manor Junior SchoolKentSt John’s Primary, Blean Primary School, St John’s CE Primary SchoolLincolnshireHorblings Browns, Wrangle Primary School, The Hackthorn Church of England Primary School, Fleet Wood Lane Primary, Fairfield Infant and Nursery School, Quadring Cowley, Dunston St Peters School, Langtoft Primary School, Louth Kidgate Primary Academy, The Hackthorn Church of England Primary School, Whaplode Primary, Sturton by Stow Primary School, Nocton Primary School, Digby CofE Primary School, St Joseph’s Catholic Primary School, Bucknall Primary School, Legsby Primary SchoolSomersetBanwell Primary School, East Anstey Primary SchoolWiltshireWardour Catholic Primary School, Lacock Church of England Primary SchoolCambridgeshireWittering Primary SchoolDerbyshireWigley, All Saints CofE Junior School, Osmaston CofE (VC) Primary School, Stoney Middleton CofE (C) Primary School, Stretton Handley Church of England Primary School, Brailsford CofE Primary School, Peak Dale Primary School, Thornsett Primary School, Pilsley CofE Primary School, Parwich Primary School, Kilburn Junior School, Duke of Norfolk CofE Primary School, Saint Mary’s Catholic Primary, Hady Primary School, Westhouses Primary School, Eureka Primary School, Stanton Primary SchoolEast SussexSt. Peter’s CE Primary School, St. Michael’s CE Primary School (Playden), Stonegate CE Primary SchoolHerefordshireBromesberrow St Mary’s Church of England (Aided) Primary SchoolNorthamptonshireOld StratfordWest SussexWivelsfield Primary Schoollast_img read more

Looking Forward: 2016 trends and threats

first_imgThe New Year is bound to bring a fresh wave of challenges to the baking industry, with the effects of the sugar tax drama yet to be felt and the National Living Wage coming into force. But there are opportunities too, with sourdough and free-from products still proving popular and sprouted grains offering a new direction for healthy bakery. Here, British Baker looks at some of the trends and threats that might be heading the industry’s way in 2016:Trend – Gluten-freeGluten-free products were a key trend of 2015, not only for coeliacs but also those pursuing a healthier lifestyle due to the perceived benefits of quitting the protein. The trend shows no sign of abating, with many producers finding they can produce certain gluten-free products which are indiscernible from the regular version. Michael Carr, sales and marketing director at ingredients producer Edme, told British Baker, the trend is set to continue. “Gluten-free will expand significantly in the coming year, with increased visibility in supermarket aisles driving awareness and initiating trial. The quality of gluten-free products will continue to improve as bakers gain more experience in this field.”Trend – SourdoughSourdough is set to be another key trend for 2016. The popularity of artisan bakeries and the efforts of the Real Bread Campaign continue unabated and the public is lapping up sourdough’s complex taste and earthy sentiment. Mike Holling, executive director at the Craft Bakers Association (CBA), said: “I think sourdough’s going to be very interesting, I’m sure that’s going to be another part of the growth market.”Trend – Sprouted GrainsWith the health debate increasingly as much about what to eat rather than what to avoid, sprouted grains seem poised to light up the healthy bakery market. Allowed to germinate before use, sprouted grains are lower in starch and higher in proteins, vitamins and minerals compared to regular grain. Carr said: “The market for sprouted grain has grown considerably in the US during the past year, and interest is now mounting rapidly in the UK and rest of Europe. We will be launching new products in this category early this year: watch this space! Additionally we would expect our malted products (malting involves the process of sprouting) to benefit from demand for sprouted grain ingredients.”Threat – National Living Wage and Apprenticeship LevyThe National Living Wage is coming into effect next April, with pay for the over-25s rising to a minimum of £7.20 an hour and then climbing to a final figure of £9 per hour by 2020. Meanwhile, employers with paybills of £3m and over will be force to pay a levy to fund the government’s ambitious apprenticeship programme. Alan Clarke, chief executive of Scottish Bakers, said: “The combined costs of these policies for each bakery business are significant and are placing jobs, particularly in rural areas, at risk and it is essential that bakers pass these costs on, where possible, to their customers. Therefore bakery prices will have to rise and if they don’t then there is potential for business failure and more rationalisation, mergers and acquisitions within the sector.”Threat – SugarSugar came under attack in 2015, with a report by Public Health England linking it to obesity. Calls for a sugar tax to reduce consumption have come in from all angles, including from celebrity chef Jamie Oliver. While no government action has yet been taken, a tax is still a real threat for 2016 and the public will be looking to see lower sugar in their products regardless of legislation. Holling said: “Whatever the government is proposing hopefully they will engage with us because we have worked together in the past, as we did with the reduction of salt levels. I’m sure if we all take a positive approach to it we can come to some positive outcome.”He added: “They could implement a tax but that is not going to stop people buying sugary products. They need to have more of a policy of education and also of personal responsibility.”Threat – SkillsEnsuring there are enough individuals with the right skills is always a challenge in any industry, especially in terms of attracting the next generation, and 2016 looks to be no exception. Clarke said: “Recruiting skilled employees across the business is still a challenge and government policy being to reduce the amount of funding provided for training should be thought of as a challenge by the sector. Not being afraid of paying for quality training and demanding high standards needs to be the norm or there is a real danger that high quality craft skills will be lost, as the older generation retires.”last_img read more

Railroad Earth Stops The Train In Denver For First Of Three Night Run [Review/Video]

first_imgRailroad Earth started off their 3-night run at The Ogden Theatre in Denver, CO with a fantastic show. The Scott Pemberton Trio opened up the evening and the crowd began to settle in nicely. The boys came out with a ripping “Jupiter and the 119” and it was clear early on that the night was going to be a fun one. Railroad kept the people dancing with tunes like “Bread and Water” and “Morning Flies” as the set progressed, leaving the crowd wanting more.The second set kept the energy going with “Lordy, Lordy” and “Cold Water.” The jams started to pick up and the band got into the groove with “Mighty River.” The somber mood from the days events were almost completely forgotten during the dance party that ensued. A feeling of pure joy emanated throughout the room as the tunes continued to please everyone’s ears. The band treated the crowd to a brand new song, penned by Todd Sheaffer. During the first listen, “Addin’ My Voice” seemed a fitting statement to go along with the demonstrations planned for Saturday morning.The crowd was hanging on every note and the room lit up when the boys came back out for a “Powder Finger” encore, which witnessed Scott Pemberton joining Railroad Earth on stage, sending the crowd off into the night with smiles from ear to ear. The band continues their run at the Ogden this evening.Enjoy this clip of “Mighty River”, courtesy of YouTube user teamrado:Setlist: Railroad Earth | Ogden Theatre | Denver, CO | 1/20/17Set 1:The Jupiter and the 119 –>Stillwater GetawayStormsReuben’s TrainBread and WaterMourning FliesMountain TimeWalk Beside MeSet 2:Lordy, LordyCold WaterCarrying Coal to Newcastle –>River Intro Jam –>Mighty RiverCrossing the GapThe CuckooAcadian DriftwoodFace with a HoleWay of the Buffalo –>Cuckoo Medley12 WolvesAddin’ My Voice (A)Encore:Powder finger (B)(A) First time played,written by Todd Sheaffer(B) With Scott Pembertonon electric guitar[words by Chris Herrmann]last_img read more

Seeds of a shutdown

first_imgSpeaking at an Institute of Politics (IOP) forum, Time magazine columnist Joe Klein connected the shutdown of the federal government to a toxic political culture created by Baby Boomers.“My generation has reached its sell-by date,” Klein said Wednesday at Harvard Kennedy School. “The way to get past this is for those who are millennials to get past us.”The author of the Bill Clinton-inspired novel “Primary Colors” and a writer for Time’s Swampland blog, Klein, 67, is a fellow at the Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy. He spent his early career as a writer for Boston’s Real Paper, a counterculture weekly. Decades later, he sees a harmful legacy in Boomer attempts to transform culture and politics in the 1960s and ’70s.Fractured coalitions were united into conservatives and liberals, but the middle was left unrepresented, he said. Gerrymandered redistricting and the 1965 Voting Rights Act gave blacks the power they had been promised after the Civil War, but deprived lawmakers of the ability to respond to districts with broad ideological and social needs. Finally, Boomers bred a media cynicism that now passes as insight, and extremists on both sides of the ideological spectrum have undercut civility in debate.“This is a consequence of my Baby Boom generation,” Klein said. “We came into political consequence by distrusting authority. The reaction to those of us involved in the antiwar and Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s was to use those same confrontational tactics we now see in the Tea Party.”Klein is at work on a book exploring the leadership skills of Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans, a project he called “the greatest joy in my life” in an interview following the forum.“I’m tremendously hopeful about that generation,” he said, “and tremendously disappointed in mine.”At the heart of the stalemate is House Republicans’ demand for concessions on President Obama’s Affordable Care Act in exchange for action on federal spending. Linda J. Bilmes, the Daniel Patrick Moynihan Senior Lecturer in Public Policy, veered away from cultural interpretation and pointed to a badly designed appropriations process as the root of the problem.Federal lawmakers could avoid annual fights by adopting state solutions, such as two-year budgeting, Bilmes said.Instead, “Congress lurches from crisis to crisis,” she said, noting that heading into the shutdown no spending bills had been passed.Maralee Schwartz, a longtime Washington Post political reporter and now supervisor of the Institute of Politics’ Washington summer internship program, moderated the discussion. She covered the 1995 federal shutdown, and recalled how Sen. Robert Dole brokered an agreement with House Speaker Newt Gingrich to reopen the government, even though he was then preparing for his presidential campaign. She wondered who the “grown-ups” would be today.“We don’t seem to be able to figure out how to negotiate,” Schwartz said. “Both sides have to be able to save face.”The IOP had planned to welcome U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack on Wednesday, but the shutdown forced him to remain in Washington, prompting the institute to organize a panel on the issue, according to Director Trey Grayson ’94.last_img read more

Turning science on its head

first_imgHarvard neuroscientists have made a discovery that turns 160 years of neuroanatomy on its head.Myelin, the electrical insulating material in the body long known to be essential for the fast transmission of impulses along the axons of nerve cells, is not as ubiquitous as thought, according to new work led by Professor Paola Arlotta of the Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) and the University’s Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, in collaboration with Professor Jeff Lichtman of Harvard’s Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology.“Myelin is a relatively recent invention during evolution,” says Arlotta. “It’s thought that myelin allowed the brain to communicate really fast to the far reaches of the body, and that it has endowed the brain with the capacity to compute higher-level functions.”In fact, loss of myelin is a feature in a number of devastating diseases, including multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia.But the new research shows that despite myelin’s essential roles in the brain, “some of the most evolved, most complex neurons of the nervous system have less myelin than older, more ancestral ones,” said Arlotta, co-director of the HSCI neuroscience program.What this means, she said, is that the higher one looks in the cerebral cortex — closer to the top of the brain, which is its most evolved part — the less myelin one finds.  Not only that, but “neurons in this part of the brain display a brand-new way of positioning myelin along their axons that has not been previously seen. They have ‘intermittent myelin’ with long axon tracts that lack myelin interspersed among myelin-rich segments.”“Contrary to the common assumptions that neurons use a universal profile of myelin distribution on their axons, the work indicates that different neurons choose to myelinate their axons differently,” Arlotta said. “In classic neurobiology textbooks, myelin is represented on axons as a sequence of myelinated segments separated by very short nodes that lack myelin. This distribution of myelin was tacitly assumed to be always the same, on every neuron, from the beginning to the end of the axon. This new work finds this not to be the case.”The results of the research by Arlotta and postdoctoral fellow Giulio Srubek Tomassy, the first author on the report, are published in the latest edition of the journal Science.The paper is accompanied by a “perspective” by R. Douglas Fields of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development at the National Institutes of Health, who said that Arlotta and Tomassy’s findings raise important questions about the purpose of myelin, and “are likely to spark new concepts about how information is transmitted and integrated in the brain.”Arlotta and Tomassy collaborated closely on the new work with postdoctoral fellow Daniel Berger of the Lichtman lab, which generated one of the two massive electron microscopy databases that made the work possible.“The fact that it is the most evolved neurons, the ones that have expanded dramatically in humans, suggest that what we’re seeing might be the ‘future.’ As neuronal diversity increases and the brain needs to process more and more complex information, neurons change the way they use myelin to achieve more,” said Arlotta.Tomassy said it is possible that these profiles of myelination “may be giving neurons an opportunity to branch out and ‘talk’ to neighboring neurons.” For example, because axons cannot make synaptic contacts when they are myelinated, one possibility is that these long myelin gaps may be needed to increase neuronal communication and synchronize responses across different neurons. He and Arlotta postulate that the intermittent myelin may be intended to fine-tune the electrical impulses traveling along the axons, in order to allow the emergence of highly complex neuronal behaviors.last_img read more